Solar Resources | Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Systems
Solar PV systems are divided into grid-connected / grid-tie systems and off-grid / stand-alone systems. For grid-connected systems, the PV system operates in parallel with the public electricity network. In general, most of the PV systems installed in developed countries are grid-connected. If connection to the grid is not possible or if there are no electricity mains, then the PV systems are installed as stand-alone systems.

A grid-connected PV system (see picture) generally comprises of the following components:
Grid-Connected System

 1.  PV Generator
 2.  DC Connection Box
 3.  DC Cabling
 4.  Power Inverter
 5.  AC Switch Board and Energy Meter
 6.  AC Cabling

Grid-Connected System   Energy Offsetting / Zero Sum Gain

In principle, Off-Grid Systems require energy storage to compensate for the time lapse between the production of energy and the energy requirement. Rechargeable batteries are suitable for energy storage. In general, the use of storage batteries requires a suitable charging regulator as an electricity manager for its protection and to guarantee a high availability and a long life expectancy. Therefore, a typical Off-Grid System consists of the following main components:
Off-Grid System

Off-Grid System